2. Rotation of an electromagnetic field: the general physical picture
In this context the principle possibility (or impossibility) of turbulent or circumrotate distribution of radio waves and, accordingly, of the above-mentioned electromagnetic energy has become especially important. The reference points in this problem are probably easier to find by means of the data from the field of physical optics, which can be regarded as quite reliable. In the book of M. Born and E. Wolf  you will find such figures. There in chapter 11, Fig. 11.14, you will find «the lines of an average stream of energy under diffraction of a normally falling H-polarized plane wave on a perfectly conducting half-plane», which we present here with no change in Fig.1, accompanied by an original reference to the primary source. Here we can see that vortexes do exist. But they are strange enough: the vortexes are located not behind an obstacle, as in a stream of fluid or gas, but before it.
Fig. 1 illustrates the mere fact of rotation. And in chapter 8 the example of behavior of the wave front in a lens focus demonstrates the very process of rotation.
Fig.2 demonstrates that in some places the front of a wave turns in steps, with a phase jump, while in other places it is still and elastic, for example, between these jumps. Both the figures demonstrate the basic difference between the properties of streams of electromagnetic energy and the properties of mechanical streams in aero- and hydrodynamics. As to a mechanical stream, one can somehow picture it to himself, at least in the form of some continuous jets, and interpret the process, by using just human imagination. As to an electromagnetic process, everything is much more complex here largely because of a great number of degrees of freedom of the components of electromagnetic field that involves many electrical and magnetic vortexes, which are interleaved, and which are elastically (not rigidly) connected with one another, i.e. with local phase shifts between these vortexes. Here the stage of interpretation should be necessarily preceded by exact calculation. The practice has proved that pure speculations are absolutely fruitless.
The above-mentioned analysis shows, what we have among the known facts (the facts that are apparent to us): electromagnetic field can rotate. At that, it is obvious that any constant velocity of distribution (or velocity of light) is out of the question. And generally speaking any derived electromagnetic field cannot be presented in the form of superposition of plane waves: there is also a circumrotate degree of freedom, to which a certain share of the general power balance of a natural wave mix is due. This share is quite known: according to statistics of Boltzmann-Gibbs, on the average it is equal to half the general energy. You cannot disagree it is really a lot. Therefore, Dirac and other founders of quantum electrodynamics could not but consider this half. Moreover, as the mathematical apparatus of that time did not present any means for description of rotations of electromagnetic field, they overcame the deadlock by presenting the real waves in the form of many flying and rotating notes, which were named “photons”. Rotation of these virtual particles has replaced a circumrotate degree of freedom of real electromagnetic field. At such level of abstraction Dirac has gained the result, which was the weightiest in the whole quantum theory, as he discovered electron spin and a new particle - a positron. The price of this success is the loss of the prospect for studying an internal structure of fundamental particles by means of present-day electrodynamics. That is not all yet. Full costs have appeared to be even higher. Unscrupulous interpreters of others' work have transferred virtual particles to the class of real particles. Then basing on an artificial mathematical device they have created a fantastic theory of the double world, which is far from a science. It has greatly turned back the clock of the further development of physics.
Dirac expressed his understanding of connection of the above-mentioned mythology with reality in the following way : «In physics one must aspire to build-up the universal scheme of description of the nature in general. An extensive area of physics can be described successfully by means of motion equations. It is necessary, that the quantum field theory should be based on the concepts and methods, which could be unified with all the other concepts and methods of physics. This necessity makes one think of building-up a quantum field theory based on motion equations. Thus, the generally accepted interpretation of the quantum field theory should be considered as a palliative without any future».
Unfortunately, Dirac has not added electrodynamics to mechanics. But it is not important now. The main thing is that he has recognized the conventional character of the quantum theory. As for us: having decided to research vortexes, we should consider real waves, setting aside any conventionalities. This is the main difference between the electrodynamics wave approach to the microcosm studying and devices of quantum mechanics. Besides, a mathematical basis of the latter is Dirac’s quantum algebra , in which anyhow all the formulas begin with Hamilton mechanics of many objects. Later, in the foreword to , he determinately wrote down the following: «The quantum field theory that is presented here is based on Hamilton’s formalism». But Hamilton’s canonical equations are defined only for potential systems, and vortexes systems do not belong to these at all.
Thus, the general provision is that the microcosm researches can either be based on quantum mechanics with its "palliative" conventionalities, or remain in the sphere of action of classical disciplines - Newton’s mechanics and Maxwell’s electrodynamics. There is nothing in between. The specificity of the problem makes us choose the second variant. We shall discuss this important feature of the mathematical device later, when we analyze the results of the experiments and in Appendices.
As for to the theory of relativity, we shall not mention it further, because apart from the scientific theory of Galilee, there also exists an obviously pseudoscientific pseudo-inspiration [13, 14], which from the point of view of modern theoretical and practical electrodynamics is absolutely incompatible with this electrodynamics (See Appendix 2).
All these things taken together make Maxwell’s theory, checked up by more than a century’s practice, and the solution of Maxwell’s equations central for our work. Certainly, we should agree to inevitability of correction of the classical equations in order to adapt them to the conditions of mobile nonlinear media.