INTRODUCTION

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*2. Rotation of an electromagnetic
field: the general physical picture*

In this context the principle possibility (or impossibility) of turbulent
or circumrotate distribution of radio waves and, accordingly, of the
above-mentioned electromagnetic energy has become especially important. The
reference points in this problem are probably easier to find by means of the
data from the field of physical optics, which can be regarded as quite
reliable. In the book of M. Born and E. Wolf [6] you will find such figures.
There in chapter 11, Fig. 11.14, you will find «the lines of an average stream
of energy under diffraction of a normally falling H-polarized plane wave on a
perfectly conducting half-plane»,
which we present here with no change in Fig.1, accompanied by an original reference to
the primary source. Here we can see that vortexes do exist. But they are
strange enough: the vortexes are located not behind an obstacle, as in a stream
of fluid or gas, but before it.

Fig. 1
illustrates the mere fact of rotation. And in chapter 8 the example of behavior
of the wave front in a lens focus demonstrates the very process of rotation.

Fig.1

Fig.2

Fig.2 demonstrates that in some places the front of a wave
turns in steps, with a phase jump, while in other places it is still and
elastic, for example, between these jumps. Both the figures demonstrate the
basic difference between the properties of streams of electromagnetic energy
and the properties of mechanical streams in aero- and hydrodynamics. As to a mechanical stream, one can somehow picture it
to himself, at least in the form of some continuous jets, and interpret the
process, by using just human imagination. As to an electromagnetic process,
everything is much more complex here largely because of a great number of
degrees of freedom of the components of electromagnetic field that involves
many electrical and magnetic vortexes, which are interleaved, and which are
elastically (not rigidly) connected with one another, i.e. with local phase
shifts between these vortexes. Here the stage of interpretation should be
necessarily preceded by exact calculation. The practice has proved that pure
speculations are absolutely fruitless.

The above-mentioned analysis shows, what we have among the known facts (the
facts that are apparent to us): electromagnetic field can rotate. At that, it
is obvious that any constant velocity of distribution (or velocity of light) is
out of the question. And generally speaking any derived electromagnetic field
cannot be presented in the form of superposition of plane waves: there is also
a circumrotate degree of freedom, to which a
certain share of the general power balance of a natural wave mix is due. This
share is quite known: according to statistics of Boltzmann-Gibbs, on the average it
is equal to half the general energy. You cannot disagree it is really a lot.
Therefore, Dirac and other founders
of quantum electrodynamics could not but consider this half. Moreover, as the
mathematical apparatus of that time did not present any means for description
of rotations of electromagnetic field, they overcame the deadlock by presenting
the real waves in the form of many flying and rotating notes, which were named
“photons”. Rotation of these virtual particles has replaced a circumrotate
degree of freedom of real electromagnetic field. At such level of abstraction
Dirac has gained the result, which was the weightiest in the whole quantum
theory, as he discovered electron spin and a new particle - a positron. The
price of this success is the loss of the prospect for studying an internal
structure of fundamental particles by means of present-day electrodynamics.
That is not all yet. Full costs have appeared to be even higher. Unscrupulous
interpreters of others' work have transferred virtual particles to the class of
real particles. Then basing on an artificial mathematical device they have
created a fantastic theory of the double world, which is far from a science. It
has greatly turned back the clock of the further development of physics.

Dirac expressed his understanding of
connection of the above-mentioned mythology with reality in the following way [5]: «In physics one
must aspire to build-up the universal scheme of description of the nature in
general. An extensive area of physics can be described successfully by means of
motion equations. It is necessary, that the quantum field theory should be
based on the concepts and methods, which could be unified with all the other
concepts and methods of physics. This necessity makes one think of building-up
a quantum field theory based on motion equations. Thus, the generally accepted
interpretation of the quantum field theory should be considered as a palliative
without
any future».

Unfortunately, Dirac has not added
electrodynamics to mechanics. But it is not important now. The main thing is
that he has recognized the conventional character of the quantum theory. As for
us: having decided to research vortexes, we should consider real waves, setting
aside any conventionalities. This is the main
difference between the electrodynamics wave approach to the microcosm studying
and devices of quantum mechanics. Besides, a mathematical basis
of the latter is Dirac’s quantum algebra [12], in which anyhow all the formulas
begin with Hamilton mechanics of many objects. Later, in the foreword to [5],
he determinately wrote down the following: «The quantum field theory that is
presented here is based on Hamilton’s formalism». But Hamilton’s canonical
equations are defined only for potential systems, and vortexes systems do not
belong to these at all.

Thus, the general provision is that the microcosm
researches can either be based on quantum mechanics with its
"palliative" conventionalities, or remain in the sphere of action of
classical disciplines - Newton’s mechanics and Maxwell’s electrodynamics. There
is nothing in between. The specificity of the problem makes us choose the
second variant. We shall discuss this important feature of the mathematical
device later, when we analyze the results of the experiments and in Appendices.

As for to the
theory of relativity, we shall not mention it further, because apart from the
scientific theory of Galilee, there also exists an
obviously pseudoscientific pseudo-inspiration [13, 14], which from the point of
view of modern theoretical and practical electrodynamics is absolutely
incompatible with this electrodynamics (See Appendix 2).

All
these things taken together make Maxwell’s theory, checked up by more than a
century’s practice, and the solution of Maxwell’s equations central for our
work. Certainly, we should agree to inevitability of correction of the
classical equations in order to adapt them to the conditions of mobile
nonlinear media.