Here we are compelled to write about the work, which is
basically not finished yet, for the scope of work is continuously creeping
beyond the boundaries of the initial problem. Therefore, our results are the
most initial. They are strongly connected with positioning electrodynamics
researches in general physics as the basis of natural science. The matter is
that the situation around this problem contains too many contradictions.
Maxwell
has opened a new form of a matter approximately 150 years ago [3]. Within the
rights of the author, he named it an electromagnetic field. By now, this field
has been studied so well and is used in techniques so widely, that we cannot
imagine our civilization without the devices, which exploit its properties. It
is basically owing to mathematical strictness of formulations in Maxwell theory
that we know about an electromagnetic field so much. But the whole theory is
fairly complex. To let the scientists of that time understand it better,
Maxwell illustrated the general theory with a private example. This example
contains the solution of the problem of an ideal flat transversal wave in free
space.
It may seem that the concrete situation
promoted the direct introduction of Maxwell theory directly into the
theoretical physics. Actually, the thing did not happen that way. The field
theory, every powerful device of it, was used in practice, while theoretical
physics used only a private example from the theory, which concerned flat
waves, i.e. the phenomenon, which does not exist in nature. In addition to it,
physicists have rejected for some reasons from Maxwell theory its basis – the
doctrine about induction. Such a paradox could not exist infinitely long. And
it has shown itself in its entirety in our researches of vortical or simply
circular motion of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media.
Now the problem has gone so far that we should discuss not only the fact of
possible existence of vortexes, but also their fundamental properties. And all
of this has to be done without a support of theoretical physics, which is so
necessary, and sometimes even contrary to its traditions.
In Appendixes
we have stated the theoretical basis for the execution of experiments described here. The
main requirement is absolute registration of all the four velocities of electrical and magnetic fields, which form each vortex. And in the long term – it is the transformation of electromagneticfield equations to dynamic form.
1. Individual properties of electromagnetic
vortexes
Let us begin with spin and mass. Both these
properties of an electromagnetic vortex are connected unequivocally only with
the problem of existence of the phenomenon. If it exists, then it is sure to
have spin and mass. Calculations have shown that such vortexes are possible,
and the behavior of Poiting vector testifies to a circular stream of energy.
And it is spin. However, the final answer to all the questions can be given
only with the help of a direct experiment with a macroscopic electromagnetic
vortex, for which we have defined some initial requirements. First, such a
nonlinear medium is necessary, in which selffocusing of laser radiation has
been gained. Secondly, there must be a strong rotating electromagnetic field.
Both the components are rather accessible to experimenters, and their
properties can vary over wide range.
The presence of a charge and a magnetic moment
is defined by unequivocally internal nonlinear properties of a vortex. I.e.
they inevitably follow from this nonlinearity in a variable electromagnetic
field, as display of a zero harmonic in spectroscopic decomposition of these
fields.
2. Collective properties of electromagnetic vortexes
Each vortex does not form a completely closed
rotationaloscillating system. Waves are spread around it. They decrease along
the amplitude in inverse proportion to the distance from the center. In usual
linear space, waves from different particles do not interact with one another.
However, there are areas of space in which this interaction takes place. Such
areas are nonlinear zones of other vortexes. If vortexes are close (within the
units of the lengths of waves) to each other, the mutual phasing of these waves
has the main role, and the phasing depends on the distance between the vortexes
and on their mutual orientation. Moreover, they strictly correspond to
spherical harmonics of each local wave process, which is called a particle. In
some positions the general energy will be minimal, in others  maximal.
Therefore, at small distances the zonal character of interaction
becomes apparent. Greater distances and a plenty of interacting vortexes should
lead to averaging of interactions, but it should be approximately round the
minimum of the general energy. It is already gravitation (we
consider the interaction of constant charges separately).
The process of a transition, for example of a
pair of vortexes from one steady state into another with the change of total
energy, generates great interest. It can be certainly investigated by direct
calculations by means of computers that are more powerful, than our PC. But
there are also other available analytical methods of studying the fluctuations
in nonlinear systems. They at once present the result testifying to an exchange
of energy with the surrounding field through radiation or absorption. At that, the
frequency of the radiated or absorbed waves should be proportional to the
difference between initial and final energy. Ingenious Max Planck has already
calculated, as you know, the coefficient of proportionality according to the
experimental data.
Thus, collective properties of electromagnetic
vortexes include the full number of all the known quantum properties of
fundamental particles, and also gravitation.
3. The Phenomenological
parallel: an electromagnetic vortex  a fundamental particle
For the sake of convenience the comparison of
the basic properties of electromagnetic vortexes with the properties of steady
fundamental particles is summarized in tables.
The first table shows, that there is a common
area of comparison (Table 1) for electromagnetic vortexes and known fundamental
particles. It involves mass, spin, a charge and the magnetic moment. These
known properties can be used to compare the results, as well as for the
possible introduction of corrections into electrodynamics of greater energies.
Property Phenomena 
Mass 
Spin 
Charge 
The magnetic moment 
Electromagnetic vortex 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
Fundamental particles 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
Table 1.
Conterminous properties.
Property Phenomena

Structure 
Mutual interference 
The nature of gravitation 
Trajectory 
Electromagnetic vortex 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
Fundamental particles 
 
 
 
 
Table 2. Various
properties.
The properties of fundamental particles, which
cannot be studied by means of the usual quantum mechanics, limited by a set of
postulates, are listed in Table 2. They can be understood and investigated only
at the level of electrodynamics, by analyzing the corresponding electromagnetic
vortexes and, naturally, their interactions.
4. The Mathematical apparatus of quantum mechanics and
real properties of fundamental particles
Mutual relations between a
traditional quantum mechanics (as a
subdiscipline) and its mathematical apparatus have a character, which is
similar to the character of relationship between a dog and its tail. The
majority of theorists believe that the tail operates a dog. This interesting
point of view was strongly discredited by Dirac. He declared that before
solving quantum problems it is necessary to think and choose the mathematical
apparatus, meeting the subjective criterion of "beauty". We must
admit that he himself did it rather well. Any other scientist in this area could
not even come near to Dirac’s achievements, if you take into consideration the
immensity of his results. But subjectivity in the choice of a mathematical apparatus does not give
the ground for the construction of an objective physical theory on its base.
So Dirac interferes with the magnificent theory
of a dog’s tail. We shall reject Dirac. Let the tail dominate. From this, it
follows that:
 dualism – a waveparticle,
 the
absence of trajectories for fundamental particles,
 indeterminacy principle of Heisenberg,
 Bohr
model of an atom,
 a
huge family of flying notes: photons, rotons, gravitons, etc.
All the components of this antiworld cannot be
listed here. The common sense has a rest here. Money and academic ranks flow as if out of a horn of
plenty.
Everything is worse, if Dirac is right. Then we
shall have to be reconciled to his opinion [5]: «Thus, the generallyaccepted
quantum theory of the field should be considered as a palliative without any
future». And the worst thing about it is that acceptance of Dirac’s point of
view entails the necessity to study other subdisciplines of physics, in
particular of the Maxwell and Hertz electrodynamics. It will inevitably lead to
vortexes, which will strongly damage the image of the antiworld. Then the
findings will be quite different:
 no dualism,
 fundamental particles have their own
trajectories,
 the indeterminacy principle of Heisenberg has
nothing to do with this,

Bohr model of an atom is primitive and incorrect,

a huge family of
flying notes: photons, rotons, gravitons, etc. are just a figment of imagination, which is much behind in comparison with the imagination of a chicken. A
bird identifies the
sources and interprets combinations of notes by implication, i.e. it carelessly
carries out arithmetic and integrated operations on streams of two
types of information –
aprioristic (here you will find imagination) and posteriori.
5.
Two quantum mechanics
So, research of electromagnetic vortexes compels
us to distinguish two quantum mechanics. The first, it is the traditional with
set of conventions and fantastic icons. Its "palliative" character is
not absolute since apparent successes of this discipline cannot be denied. But the
second quantum mechanics exists. It is
based on the Newton mechanic and a Maxwell electrodynamics, and only it can
open structure of fundamental particles and the nature of their interaction,
exclusively without hypotheses and mystical revelations.
We do not impose our point of view to the
reader in any way, but we acquaint him with another approach to problems of the
world of fundamental particles, which is probably not new for him (the same
could be offered 100 years ago). And it is for him to decide what is more realistic.